## Introduction

Steve Gadd is famous for being one of the first people to popularize playing fast 32nd notes between the hihat, snare and bass drum, typically using a combination of rudiments, like inverted doubles and paradiddles. Some people refer to these as "Flutter Licks", but I will be using the name "Gaddisms" here.

I was originally introduced to this from a YouTube video by Jungleritter, but many other drum educators have approached this, for example Austin Burcham. To get an idea you can watch the following Steve Gadd performances:  The most basic version of these Gaddisms is definitely the following: In this tutorial I'll be going through the process I followed, in order to create exercises that allow me to study these Gaddisms, without having to write any combination I come with one by one, and also allowing me to easily add more or print less of them into a score.

The final output of this tutorial will be something like this: and something like this: After I've practiced the crap out of these things, I could play things like the following in my band's live:

## Creating the Gaddisms with Julia code

Be sure that you have read the section on Drum Notation before reading this, to be able to understand how I actually write drum notation in MuseScore.

Alright, Let's first load some basic packages and define some quantities

using MusicManipulations # tools for handling MIDI data
using MusicVisualizations # to be able to access MuseScore

kick = "Low Floor Tom"
snare = "Acoustic Snare"
stick = "Side Stick"
hihat = "Closed Hi-Hat"

tpq = 960          # Duration of a quarter note in ticks
subdiv = tpq÷8     # note subdivision duration (32nd notes)
patlen = 8*subdiv  # pattern length
960

Then we define the types of notes that will be part of the 32nd note patterns we will create:

A = DrumNote(snare, 0, subdiv; velocity = 100)
R = DrumNote(hihat, 0, subdiv; velocity = 70)
L = DrumNote(stick, 0, subdiv; velocity = 70)
K = DrumNote(kick,  0, subdiv; velocity = 80)
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9

I've made the "kick" note K to be a floor tom simply because MuseScore writes bass drum notes on a different voice than the rest of the notes, which makes the final score hard to read. You could use the "real" bass drum note by using mdk["Acoustic Bass Drum"] instead.

In any case, the goal is to combine these four notes to make "Gaddisms", keeping in mind the following simple rules (to stay as close to the original Steve Gadd style as possible):

1. Each Gaddism has 16 32nd notes (2 quarter notes)
2. The first half starts with a kick K and cannot end with a right hand
3. The second class starts with a right hand accent A
4. R, L, K can be repeated up to two times sequentially

For example, the most "standard" pattern is KLLRRLLK ALLRRLLK: As we have defined the notes A, ... K, the simplest way to do make this pattern from notes programmatically is to combine them into a vector, e.g.

[K, L, L, R, R, L, L, K]
8-element Vector{Note}:
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9

The problem unfortunately is that all of these notes start at the same time, so if we made them into a score, you'd have 8 32nd notes all in the first 32nd note of the bar...

To be able to transform this vector of notes into notes that start sequentially we define the following function:

"""
Combine the given notes into a notes that start sequentially.
"""
function make_pattern(v::Vector{<:AbstractNote})
n = Notes([v], 960)
for i in 2:length(v)
push!(n, translate(v[i], (i-1)*subdiv))
end
return n
end

p1 = make_pattern([K, L, L, R, R, L, L, K])
p2 = make_pattern([A, L, L, R, R, L, L, K])
8 Notes with tpq=960
Note D2  | vel = 100 | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 120, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 240, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 360, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 480, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 600, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 720, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 840, dur = 120 | channel 9

And we can easily combine them and put them into MuseScore and see the output:

x = combine([p1, translate(p2, patlen)])
16 Notes with tpq=960
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 120, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 240, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 360, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 480, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 600, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 720, dur = 120 | channel 9
⋮
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1080, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1200, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1320, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1440, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1560, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1680, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 1800, dur = 120 | channel 9
musescore("standard.png", x) Notice the use of the translate function, which ensures that the second part p2 doesn't start at the same time as p1.

Alright, now it is only a matter of just writing down all "Gaddisms" that we would like to practice:

first_half = make_pattern.([
[K, L, L, R, R, L, L, K],
[K, L, L, K, R, L, L, K],
[K, R, L, K, R, L, L, K],
[K, R, L, K, R, L, K, L],
[K, L, R, R, L, L, R, L],
[K, L, R, R, L, R, R, L],
[K, L, L, R, R, L, K, K],
[K, R, L, R, R, L, L, K],
[K, L, L, R, K, L, K, L],
[K, L, R, R, L, R, L, L],
[K, L, L, K, A, L, L, K],
])

second_half = make_pattern.([
[A, L, L, R, R, L, L, K],
[A, L, L, K, R, L, L, K],
[A, L, K, L, R, L, L, K],
[A, L, L, R, K, R, L, L],
[A, L, R, R, L, R, L, L],
[A, L, R, R, L, R, R, L],
[A, L, L, R, R, K, L, L],
[A, L, K, R, L, K, R, L],
[A, L, R, L, L, R, L, L],
[A, L, R, L, L, R, L, K],
[A, K, R, L, K, R, L, K],
[A, K, R, L, L, R, R, K],
[A, L, A, L, L, R, L, K],
])

second_half
8 Notes with tpq=960
Note D2  | vel = 100 | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 120, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 240, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 360, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 480, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 600, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 720, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 840, dur = 120 | channel 9

## Combining Gaddisms into a sequence

By now every component we need is ready, and we could use any arbitrary Gaddisms to make a sequence, for example

x = combine([first_half, translate(second_half, patlen)])
16 Notes with tpq=960
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 0, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 120, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 240, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 360, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 480, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 600, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 720, dur = 120 | channel 9
⋮
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1080, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 1200, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1320, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1440, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F2  | vel = 80  | pos = 1560, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note F♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1680, dur = 120 | channel 9
Note C♯2 | vel = 70  | pos = 1800, dur = 120 | channel 9
musescore("another.png", x) The recipe is simple enough and we define a function that will just produce a sequence of arbitrary many gaddisms

function random_gaddisms(n = 1)
@assert n ≤ min(length(first_half), length(second_half))
r1, r2 = randperm(length(first_half)), randperm(length(second_half))
final = Vector{Notes}()
c = 0
for i in 1:n
push!(final, translate(first_half[r1[i]],  c*patlen))
push!(final, translate(second_half[r2[i]], (c+1)*patlen))
c += 8 # this adds a bar of rest, for better layouting
end
return combine(final)
end
random_gaddisms (generic function with 2 methods)
musescore("random1.png", random_gaddisms(4)) musescore("random2.png", random_gaddisms(8)) One can run this command arbitrary times to make arbitrary amount of random combinations, e.g. [musescore("randgadd_$i.pdf", random_gaddisms(8)) for i in 1:4]. ## Gaddism Matrix If you print and try to study many of these comdinations, as e.g. shown in the last section of this page, you will quickly realize that there must be some more efficient ways to present all this information. Well, the answer is a matrix! A matrix looks like this: How do you make such a matrix? with the following function: using PyPlot function gaddism_matrix(first, second; dx = 2.6, dy = 1.2) # inches per pattern patternimg(path) = matplotlib.image.imread(path)[:, 640:2880, :] Lf, Ls = length.((first, second)) fig, axs = subplots(Lf+1, Ls+1, figsize = ((Ls+1)*dx, (Lf+1)*dy)) for (fi, f) in enumerate(first) musescore("f$(f).png", first_half[f], display = false)
fimg = patternimg("f$(f)-1.png") axs[fi+1, 1].imshow(fimg) rm("f$(f)-1.png")
for y in ((1 - fi/(Lf+1)), (1 - (fi+1)/(Lf+1)))
line = matplotlib.lines.Line2D([0, 1], [y, y], color="k", transform=fig.transFigure)
end
end
for (si, s) in enumerate(second)
musescore("s$(s).png", second_half[s], display = false) simg = patternimg("s$(s)-1.png")
axs[1, si+1].imshow(simg)
rm("s$(s)-1.png") for x in (si/(Ls+1), (si+1)/(Ls+1)) line = matplotlib.lines.Line2D([x, x], [0, 1], color="k", transform=fig.transFigure) fig.add_artist(line) end end axs[1,1].text(0.5,0.5, "Gaddism Matrix\n(flutter licks)\n"* "by George Datseris\nusing JuliaMusic", va="center", ha="center", size=12) for ax in axs; ax.axis("off"); end fig.tight_layout() fig.savefig("gaddmatrix_$(join(first))x\$(join(second)).png", dpi = 1200)
end
gaddism_matrix (generic function with 1 method)

This function is given two vectors of integer indices, each denoting which patterns from the first and second half to include into the matrix:

gaddism_matrix([1, 2, 4, 5, 7], [1, 8, 5]) For example, the standard pattern shown in the introduction was made with this code:

gaddism_matrix(1:4, 1:3)

I won't go too deep into details about gaddism_matrix, because most of the code is plotting. In essence what the function does is saves each pattern by itself via MuseScore, then loads the image as numeric data (see patternimg) and plots this image using PyPlot. The rest of the code is just layouting and adding straight lines.

This function is awesome because it is scalable to arbitrary amounts of first and second half patterns! For example:

gaddism_matrix([6, 8], 1:6) The way I studied this is creating 3x3 matrices and really focusing on learning the individual patterns to the point I could arbitrarily combine most of them.

## Putting all possible Gaddism combinations into a PDF

Putting all possible Gaddism combinations into a PDF is straightforward with the following simple function:

function allgaddisms(first_half, second_half)
final = Vector{Notes}()
c = 0
for i in 1:length(first_half)
for j in 1:length(second_half)
push!(final, translate(first_half[i], c*patlen))
push!(final, translate(second_half[j], (c+1)*patlen))
c += 8
end
end
return combine(final)
end
allgaddisms (generic function with 1 method)
musescore("all.pdf", allgaddisms(first_half, second_half));

Notice that this will make a huge pdf file. You can of course do:

musescore("all_from_1.pdf", allgaddisms([first_half], second_half));

to only combine the first combination with all the others.